Rhetorical Analysis / Close Reading: Multiple-Choice Stems
From the AP Literature and Composition exam:
1. What is the author's attitude toward the subject of the essay?
2. What is this passage about?
3. What does the phrase, ______________, mean?
4. How would you characterize the style of the passage?
5. Which of the following best summarizes the main point in lines _____?
6. What is the main point in _____? (the passage, the second paragraph, etc.)
7. How would you restate the meaning of _______________?
8. How would you define the phrase ___________?
9. What is the speaker’s purpose in _____________?
10. What thought is reflected in the allusion ____________?
11. What is the tone of the passage?
12. How would you define the word ____________?
13. How would you describe the diction and style of the passage?
14. In lines _____, what is the speaker asserting?
15. Why is ___________ described as __________?
16. What is significant about the structure of sentence #____ in lines ____?
17. In sentences _____, what contrasts are developed or implied?
18. In lines ________, why does the author pair quotations?
19. In lines ________, what is the effect of pairing quotations?
20. What is the dominant technique used in lines ______?
21. In lines ______, what is the effect of using a metaphor?
22. In lines _____, juxtaposing _________ and ___________ serves the purpose of ________________.
23. What does the speaker accomplish in using __________?
24. By using the words _______, the speaker shows the belief that _____.
25. In lines _____, how is the speaker portrayed?
26. The shift in point of view from...has the effect of...
27. What is the theme of the ____________ (e.g., second paragraph, whole piece)?
28. In lines ____, the passage shifts from _________ to __________.
29. Why does the author represent _______________ as ______________ in lines ____?
30. What is the purpose of the syntax in sentence _____?
31. What does __________________ symbolize in lines ____?
32. The speaker's attitude toward ___________ is best described as one of _________________.
33. In _____, the author is asserting that __________________.
34. The term _____ conveys the speaker's belief that ______________.
35. The speaker assumes that the audience's attitude toward ____________will be one of ____________.
36. In the _______ (e.g., first, second, last) paragraph, the speaker seeks to interest us in the subjects of the discussion
by stressing the __________.
37. It can be inferred by ____________ that __________________.
38. The ________ (e.g., first, second) sentence is unified by metaphorical references pertaining to _________________.
39. The speaker's mention of _________is appropriate to the development of the argument as an illustration of ______________.
40. As the sentence in lines _____ is constructed, _____________ is parallel to ___________________.
41. It can be inferred from the description of __________ that the qualities of ______________ are valued by the speaker.
42. According to the passage, ___________ is ____________ because ______________________________.
43. In the context of the passage, __________is best interpreted as ______.
44. Sentence _________ is best described as _______________.
45. The antecedent for ________in line ________is ________.
46. What type of argument does the writer employ in lines ______?
47. Why does the speaker use the sequence of ideas in lines _____?
48. We can infer from ______________ that __________________.
49. What pattern of exposition does the writer use in this passage?
50. What is the point of view in this passage/poem?
51. What is the purpose of the statement in lines _____?
52. What atmosphere or mood is established in lines _______?
53. The _______ (e.g., first, fourth) sentence is coherent because of its use of _______________.
54. What qualities are present in the scene described in lines _____?
55. What words and details suggest a _________ (adjective) attitude on the part of the author?
56. In line _______, the use of __________instead of ___________accomplishes _____________.
57. In line__________, the author emphasizes _______because he/she_______.
58. The use of _________suggests that ____________.
59. What is the function of the __________ (sentence, detail, clause, phrase, and so on) in lines _______?
60. The subject of the sentence in lines _________is ________.
61. What assertions does the author make in the passage, and what is his/her purpose in doing this?
62. By ________, the author most probably means ______.
63. What meanings are contained in the word ______ in line _____?
64. What can we infer from the passage about _________________________?
65. The author apparently believes that __________________________.
66. In lines________, the phrase_________ is used to refer to _______.
67. The author believes that we should_______________________________.
68. The _________ (e.g., first, last, third) sentence of the passage is chiefly remarkable for its____________________________________.
69. What does the author want to encourage in a person?
70. What is the function of ______________ in relation to __________?
From the AP Language and Composition exam:
71. What is the author's attitude toward the subject?
72. What does the phrase ______mean?
73. How would you characterize the style of the passage?
74. What is the main point of the passage?
75. Restate the phrase, ________.
76. Define the phrase, _________.
77. What is the speaker's purpose in writing this passage?
78. What is the speaker's purpose in lines _______.
79. Why does the writer use the allusion to______________?
80. What is the tone of the passage?
81. How would you characterize the diction and style of the passage?
82. What is the speaker asserting in lines________?
83. Describe the structure of the sentence in lines_____.
84. What contrast does the speaker develop in lines _______?
85. What effect is achieved by the speaker's using the phrases _______?
86. What dominant technique is the speaker using in lines ______?
87. In lines _______, ________________is a metaphorical way of saying _________________________________.
88. What does the author achieve by juxtaposing ___________________ and _______________________________?
89. What does the speaker accomplish in this passage?
90. What does the choice of words show about the speaker's beliefs?
91. Where is there a shift of tone in the passage?
92. The syntax in lines ________serves to ___________________________.
93. What is the speaker's attitude toward the subject?
94. What assumptions does the speaker make about the audience?
95. How does the author seek to interest us in the first paragraph?
96. What method does the author use to develop the argument?
97. Line ________is parallel to what other line in the passage?
98. What can you infer about the author's attitudes toward the subject?
99. What is the antecedent for _______?
100. What type of argument is the author using in this passage?
101. What pattern of exposition is the author using in this passage?
102. What is the atmosphere established in lines _______?
103. Why is the sentence in lines _______ coherent, despite its length?
104. In line______, the use of _______ instead of _________ accomplishes what?
105. What is the function of _______________________in the passage?
106. What is the subject of the sentence in lines ______?
107. What does the author apparently believe about the subject?
108. What does the author believe we should do in response to this passage?
109. Why is the sentence in lines ________ remarkable?
110. What is the function of paragraph _________? of line _______?
From Jane Schaffer on the AP ListServ